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您所在的位置:济南朗阁雅思 > 雅思阅读培训 > 剑桥雅思阅读长难句分析 (系列文章之十)
剑桥雅思阅读长难句分析 (系列文章之十)
新闻文章排行榜>> 丨2014-07-07 作者:济南朗阁 点击数:

核心提示:长难句是雅思阅读中的一大考验。基础不好,语法混乱,一旦遇上长难句就真的欲哭无泪了。 朗阁雅思 ,雅思零基础班,从零开始学英语,打好基础,从此不惧长难句! 1. But most modern humour theorists have settled on some version of Aristotles belief th

 长难句是雅思阅读中的一大考验。基础不好,语法混乱,一旦遇上长难句就真的欲哭无泪了。朗阁雅思,雅思零基础班,从零开始学英语,打好基础,从此不惧长难句!

 

1.   But most modern humour theorists have settled on some version of Aristotle’s belief that jokes are based on a reaction to or resolution of incongruity, when the punchline is either a nonsense or, though appearing silly, has a clever second meaning.(剑5, Test 2 passage 2)

分析:本句主句为“most modern humour theorists have settled on some version of Aristotle’s belief”; “that jokes are based on a reaction to or resolution of incongruity, when the punchline is either a nonsense or, though appearing silly, has a clever second meaning.”为that引导的同位语从句,做belief的同位语;“when the punchline is either a nonsense or, though appearing silly, has a clever second meaning”为when引导的时间状语从句,在同位语从句中做时间状语;“though appearing silly”为现在分词短语做状语,由though引导,做让步状语。

 

2.   He says that while there is no single format of jokes, many revolve around a sudden and surprising conceptual shift.(剑5, Test 2 passage 2)

分析:本句中主句为“He says that…”; 其中“that while there is no single format of jokes, many revolve around a sudden and surprising conceptual shift”为that引导的宾语从句,做says的宾语;“while there is no single format of jokes”在该宾语从句中做让步状语,由while引导。

 

3.   So even if a punchline sounds silly, the listener can see there is a clever semantic fit and that sudden mental ‘Aha!’ is the buzz that makes us laugh.(剑5, Test 2 passage 2)

分析:本句为并列句,“the listener can see there is a clever semantic fit”和“that sudden mental ‘Aha!’ is the buzz that makes us laugh”并列。“even if a punchline sounds silly”为整个并列句的让步状语从句,由even if引导;“that makes us laugh”为定语从句,做buzz的定语,关系词为that。

 

4.   Both social and cognitive types of laughter tap into the same expressive machinery in our brains, the emotion and motor circuits that produce smiles and excited vocalizations.(剑5, Test 2 passage 2)

分析:本句的主句为“Both social and cognitive types of laughter tap into the same expressive machinery in our brains”; “the emotion and motor circuits” 做the same expressive machinery in our brains的同位语;“that produce smiles and excited vocalizations”为定语从句,做the emotion and motor circuits的定语,关系词为that。

 

5.   Although Goel felt being inside a brain scanner was hardly the ideal place for appreciating a joke, he found evidence that understanding a joke involves a widespread mental shift.(剑5, Test 2 passage 1)

分析:本句的主句为“he found evidence”; “that understanding a joke involves a widespread mental shift”为that引导的同位语从句,做evidence的同位语;“Although Goel felt being inside a brain scanner was hardly the ideal place for appreciating a joke”为Although引导的让步状语从句;其中“being inside a brain scanner was hardly the ideal place for appreciating a joke”为宾语从句,关系词that省略,做动词felt的宾语。

 

6.   The fact that jokes tap into our general evaluative machinery explains why the line between funny and disgusting, or funny and frightening, can be so fine.(剑5, Test 2 passage 2)

分析:本句的主句为“The fact explains why…”, 其中“why the line between funny and disgusting, or funny and frightening, can be so fine.”为why引导的宾语从句,做explains的宾语;“that jokes tap into our general evaluative machinery”为that引导的同位语从句,做The fact的同位语。

 

7.   If we can figure out how the mind processes humour, then we’ll have a pretty good handle on how it works in general.(剑5, Test 2 passage 1)

分析:本句的主句为“we’ll have a pretty  good handle on how…”, 其中“how it works in general”为how引导的宾语从句短语做定语,做介词on的宾语;“If we can figure out how the mind processes humour”为If引导的条件状语从句,其中“how the mind processes humour”为how引导的宾语从句,做动词词组figure out的宾语。

 

8.   Given the prominence of scientific English today, it may seem surprising that no one really knew how to write science in English before the 17th century.(剑5, Test 2 passage 3)

分析:本句的主句为“it may seem surprising that no one really knew how to write science in English before the 17th century.”, 其中“that no one really knew how to write science in English before the 17th century.”为that引导的主语从句,it为形式主语;Given在此处为介词,意为“考虑到”。

 

9.   Such expansion, which was to take the English language west to America and east to India, was supported by scientific developments such as the discovery of magnetism (and hence the invention of the compass), improvements in cartography and –perhaps the most important scientific revolution of them all –the new theories of astronomy and the movement of the Earth in relation to the planets and stars, developed by Copernicus.(剑5, Test 2 passage 3)

分析:本句的主句为“Such expansion was supported by scientific developments”; “such as the discovery of magnetism (and hence the invention of the compass), improvements in cartography and –perhaps the most important scientific revolution of them all –the new theories of astronomy and the movement of the Earth in relation to the planets and stars, developed by Copernicus.”为such as引导的例子,举例说明scientific developments; 其中(and hence the invention of the compass)为用圆括号表示的附加或者补充信息,补充说明the discovery of magnetism; “–perhaps the most important scientific revolution of them all–”为用破折号表示的附加或者补充信息,补充说明improvements in cartography。

 

10. There was something of a social distinction between ‘scholars and gentlemen’ who understood Latin, and men of trade who lacked a classical education.(剑5, Test 2 passage 3)

分析:本句的主句为“There was something of a social distinction between ‘scholars and gentlemen’ and men of trade”; “who understood Latin”为定语从句,做‘scholars and gentlemen’的定语,关系词为who; “who lacked a classical education”为定语从句,做men of trade的定语,关系词为who。

 

11. Second, it lacked the grammatical resources required to represent the world in an objective and impersonal way, and to discuss the relations, such as cause and effect, that might hold between complex and hypothetical entities.(剑5, Test 2 passage 3)

分析:本句的主句为“it lacked the grammatical resources”; “required to represent the world in an objective and impersonal way, and to discuss the relations, such as cause and effect, that might hold between complex and hypothetical entities”为过去分词短语作定语,做the grammatical resources的定语;而其中“such as cause and effect”为例子,解释说明the relations; “that might hold between complex and hypothetical entities”为定语从句,做the relations的定语,关系词为that。

 

 

 

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